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[摘要] Section I Use of LanguageDirections:Read the following text Choose the best word(S) for each numbered blank and

Section I Use of Language

Directions:

Read the following text. Choose the best word(S) for each numbered blank and mark A, B ,C or D on ANSWER SHEET. (10 Points)

As many people hit middle age, they often start to notice that their memory and mental clarity are not what they used to be. We suddenly can't remember 1 we put the keys just a moment ago, or an old acquaintance's name, or the name of an old band we used to love. As the brain 2 , we refer to these occurrences as "senior moments." 3 seemingly innocent, this loss of mental focus can potentially have a(an) 4 impact on our professional, social, and personal 5 .

Neuroscientists, experts who study the nervous system, are increasingly showing that there's actually a lot that can be done. It 6 out that the brain needs exercise in much the same way our muscles do, and the right mental 7 can significantly improve our basic cognitive 8 . Thinking is essentially a 9 of making connections in the brain. To a certain extent, our ability to 10 in making the connections that drive intelligence is inherited. 11 , because these connections are made through effort and practice, scientists believe that intelligence can expand and fluctuate 12 mental effort.

Now, a new Web-based company has taken it a step 13 and developed the first "brain training program" designed to actually help people improve and regain their mental 14 .

The Web-based program 15 you to systematically improve your memory and attention skills. The program keeps 16 of your progress and provides detailed feedback 17 your performance and improvement. Most importantly, it 18 modifies and enhances the games you play to 19 on the strengths you are developing--much like a(n) 20 exercise routine requires you to increase resistance and vary your muscle use.

 

1.[A]where

[B]when

[C]that

[D]why

2.[A]improves

[B]fades

[C]recovers

[D]collapses

3.[A]If

[B]Unless

[C]Once

[D]While

4.[A]uneven

[B]limited

[C]damaging

[D]obscure

5.[A]wellbeing

[B]environment

[C]relationship

[D]outlook

6.[A]turns

[B]finds

[C]points

[D]figures

7.[A]roundabouts

[B]responses

[C]workouts

[D]associations

8.[A]genre

[B]functions

[C]circumstances

[D]criterion

9.[A]channel

[B]condition

[C]sequence

[D]process

10.[A]persist

[B]believe

[C]excel

[D]feature

11.[A]Therefore

[B]Moreover

[C]Otherwise

[D]However

12.[A]according to

[B]regardless of

[C]apart from

[D]instead of

13.[A]back

[B]further

[C]aside

[D]around

14.[A]sharpness

[B]stability

[C]framework

[D]flexibility

15.[A]forces

[B]reminds

[C]hurries

[D]allows

16.[A]hold

[B]track

[C]order

[D]pace

17.[A] to

[B]with

[C]for

[D]on

18.[A]irregularly

[B]habitually

[C]constantly

[D]unusually

19.[A]carry

[B]put

[C]build

[D]take

20.[A]risky

[B]effective

[C]idle

[D]familiar

答案:1-5 ABDCA

6-10ACBDC

11-15DABAD

16-20BDCCB

1. [标准答案] [A]

[考点分析] 上下文语义和连词辨析

[选项分析] 本题考查连词。根据上下文意思,首先可以排除[B][C][D]。这句话中 where 引导一个状语语从句,主要是说记不清把钥匙放在哪里了。

2. [标准答案] [B]

[考点分析] 上下文语义和动词辨析

[选项分析] As the brain 2 we refer to these occurrences as "senior moments这句话的意思是“由于大脑 2 我们称这些现象为“瞬间性老年痴呆”,由此可以排除[A] 和 [C]。[D]collapse意为:使倒塌,使崩溃,不符合题意。fades考察熟词僻意,通常意思为褪色,逝去。还有衰老的意思,这里就考察是衰老的意思。从前文可以看出,文章讲的是随着年龄增长,大脑衰老。所以选[B]

3. [标准答案] [D]

[考点分析] 逻辑衔接题

[选项分析] [A] if 表示假设“如果”。[B] Unless “除非,如果不”。[C]Once “一旦”。[D]While,“虽然,然而”表转折。这句话的意思是虽然表面上看起来没什么,但是危害很大,前后位转折关系,所以选D。

4. [标准答案] [C]

[考点分析] 上下文语义和词汇辨析

[选项分析] 这四个选项均为形容词,[A] 表示“不均匀”, [B] 表示“有限的”, [C] 表示“有破坏性的,损坏的”, [D] 表示“模糊的,晦涩的”。这句话意思是这种精神能量的缺失会给我们带来……的影响。根据上下文的意思,可以排除 [A] 和 [D]。而“有限的影响”显然不足以表达危害的严重性,故可以排除[B] 选项。[C] “带来有害的影响”最符合作者意图。

5. [标准答案] [A]

[考点分析] 上下文语义和名词辨析

[选项分析] 本句话含义是这种精神能量的缺失会给我们的职业、社交还有个人……带来有害的影响。[A] wellbeing “幸福”。[B]environment “环境”。[C] relationship “关系”。[D] outlook “展望”。and连接若干名词,这些名词应该为同一类,职业、社交都是和个人相关,排除[B] 和[D],[C] personal relationship就是social的意思,不能重复,选择[A],个人幸福。

6. [标准答案] [A]

[考点分析] 固定搭配

[选项分析] [A] it turns out that “原来,其实” 。[B]it finds out that“本文发现”。[C] it points out that“指出”。[D] it figures out that“本文发现”。It代表神经科学,这句话的意思是越来越多的精神学家们都表示,大脑其实跟肌肉一样需要练习运动。这里给出的是神经科学的结论,因此选择it turns out that

7.[标准答案] [C]

[考点分析] 上下文语义和名词辨析

[选项分析] 这四个选项均为名词。[A] roundabouts迂回路线。[B]responses回应。[C]workouts锻炼,练习。[D]associations协会。[C]workouts锻炼,练习与前文出现的exercise都有“锻炼,练习”的意思,近义词复现,所以选[C]

8.[标准答案] [B]

[考点分析] 上下文语义和名词辨析

[选项分析] 这四个选项均为名词。[A]genre类型,种类。[B]functions功能。[C]circumstances情况,环境。[D]criterion批评判断的标准、准则。这句话的意思是正确的智力运动能极大地提高我们最基本的认知功能,根据语义,选择[B]functions功能。

9.[标准答案] [D]

[考点分析] 上下文语义和名词辨析

[选项分析] 这四个选项均为名词。[A] channel通道,频道。[B]condition条件。[C]sequence顺序,序列。[D]process过程,步骤。根据常识,思考是一个过程,并且通过脑神经相互接触来完成,其他选项表示渠道、序列、条件,均不符合常识。因此正确答案是表示过程的[D]选项。这句话的意思是思考是大脑神经连接必要的过程。

10.[标准答案] [D]

[考点分析] 上下文语义和动词辨析

[选项分析] 这四个选项均为动词。[A] persist坚持。[B] believe相信。[C] excel超过。[D] feature特色。本句句意,在某种程度来讲,我们在进行神经连接(直接影响人的聪明程度)方面的特殊能力是与生俱来的。excel 有超过擅长的意思,表示在某个方面出众,放在此处符合题意,因此正确答案为[B]。

11.[标准答案] [D]

[考点分析] 逻辑衔接题

[选项分析] 本题需要的是一个副词,而且位于句首,因此考察的是句关系。通过前后句意义来定答案,前一句强调的是智力是与生俱来的(inherited),而后一句则认为是可以通过脑力活动(mental effort)会有所波动,两句意义明显相反,故正确答案为[D] However。

12.[标准答案] [A]

[考点分析] 上下文语义和短语辨析

[选项分析] 本题并不难,可以理解为:智力可以……脑力活动得到提升或出现波动。 [B]regardless of “不管,不顾”不合逻辑。[C]apart from“除……之外”也不合适。[D]instead of “代替”明显不符。故[A]为正确答案。

13.[标准答案] [B]

[考点分析] 上下文语义和固定搭配

[选项分析] 本题考察的是固定搭配:take a step ……,能搭配只有A和C,分别指“采取进一步措施”和“让到一边去”,无论从逻辑上还是从句意上都是A符合。

14.[标准答案] [A]

[考点分析] 上下文语义和词汇辨析

[选项分析] 本题考察的是动宾搭配:improve and regain sb’s mental ……,再根据前文一直在讲如何提高“智力”,因此可以排除A(模式)和B(稳定性),C(灵活性)和D(锋利性,尖锐性)容易混淆,C有一定的干扰性,但双比之下,D更契合前文,故选D。

15.[标准答案] [D]

[考点分析] 上下文语义和词汇辨析

[选项分析] 空格所在句的意思是说这个网络课程可以_____系统地改善你的记忆力和注意力。而且此处需要填入的动词需要与to进行搭配。根据搭配关系直接排除A,B。本文的主题介绍的是使人聪明的脑力锻炼法,感情色彩是中性的,此处的D选项force排除,所以最恰当的是D。

16.[标准答案] [B]

[考点分析] 上下文语义和固定搭配

[选项分析] 空格所在句的意思是说这个培训课程还可以_____学习进度,并且给予详尽的信息反馈。根据语境,空格缺少的词汇意义为跟踪学习进度,分析四个选项,直接排除A hold, C order; 辨析B,D两个选项,与D选项的pace搭配的介词应该为with,即,keep pace with,所以排除,B选项为正确答案,keep track of 意思为跟踪。

17.[标准答案] [C]

[考点分析] 上下文语义和介词

[选项分析] 本题考查介词,根据空格前后语境,空格所缺少的介词意义为关于你的表现作出详细的反馈,四个选项中只有D有关于的意思。

18.[标准答案] [C]

[考点分析] 上下文语义和词汇辨析

[选项分析] 空格所在句的意思是说更加重要的是,它会_____调整并升级有关训练游戏。通过前后句的语境,所用词汇均为褒义词,所以,从感情色彩方面可以排除A,B习惯性的主语应该为人,直接排除。B经常的,D异乎寻常的代入,发现C比较符合题意。

19.[标准答案] [C]

[考点分析] 上下文语义和词汇辨析

[选项分析] 空格所在句的意思是说它会经常调整并升级有关训练游戏,以促进脑力的不断____。本题所缺少的动词需要与介词on 搭配,A put on 穿上,增加;B carry on 执行;C build on 在……基础上增加,构建;D take on 呈现;代入空格发现只有C适合,A,B,D都不与空格后面的development 相搭配。

20.[标准答案] [C]

[考点分析] 上下文语义和词汇辨析

[选项分析] 本题涉及的是一个含不定式作后定的句子,所缺词汇为形容词修饰exercise routine,根据前后情感一致的逻辑,通过后面的不定式中的关键词increase寺和vary your muscle use等信息反推所需词汇为正向词汇,直接排除A和B,D是中性,只有C(有效的)符合逻辑,故为正确答案。

Section II Reading Comprehension

Part A

Directions: Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C, D. Mark your choice on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)

Text 1

In order to “change lives for the better” and reduce “dependency,” George Orbome, Chancellor of the Exchequer, introduced the “upfront work search” scheme. Only if the jobless arrive at the jobcentre with a CV register for online job search, and start looking for work will they be eligible for benefit-and then they should report weekly rather than fortnightly. What could be more reasonable?

More apparent reasonableness followed. There will now be a seven-day wait for the jobseeker’s allowance. “Those first few days should be spent looking for work, not looking to sign on.” he claimed. “We’re doing these things because we know they help people say off benefits and help those on benefits get into work faster” Help? Really? On first hearing, this was the socially concerned chancellor, trying to change lives for the better, complete with “reforms” to an obviously indulgent system that demands too little effort from the newly unemployed to find work, and subsides laziness. What motivated him, we were to understand, was his zeal for “fundamental fairness”-protecting the taxpayer, controlling spending and ensuring that only the most deserving claimants received their benefits.

Losing ajobishurting:youdon’tskipdowntothejobcentrewithasonginyour heart, delightedattheprospectofdoublingyourincomefromthegenerous state. Itisfinanciallyterrifying, psychologicallyembarrassingandyouknow thatsupportisminimalandextraordinarilyhardtoget. Youarenownot wanted;yousupportisminimalandextraordinarilyhardtoget.Youarenownot wanted;youarenowexcludedfromtheworkenvironmentthatofferspurposeand structureinyourlife. Worse,thecrucialincometofeedyourselfandyour familyandpaythebillshasdisappeared.Askanyonenewlyunemployedwhatthey wantandtheanswerisalways:ajob.

ButinOsborneland,yourfirstinstinctistofallintodependency—permanentdependencyifyoucangetit—supportedbyastateonlytooreadyto indulgeyourfalsehood.Itisasthough20yearsofever-tougherreformsofthe jobsearchandbenefitadministrationsystemneverhappened.Theprincipleof Britishwelfareisnolongerthatyoucaninsureyourselfagainsttheriskof unemploymentandreceiveunconditionalpaymentsifthedisasterhappens.Even theveryphrase“jobseeker’sallowance”—inventedin1996—isabout redefiningtheunemployedasa“jobseeker”whohadnomandatoryrighttoa benefitheorshehasearnedthroughmakingnationalinsurancecontributions.Instead,theclaimant receivesatime-limited“allowance,” conditionalon activelyseekingajob; noentitlementandnoinsurance,at£71.70aweek,one oftheleastgenerousintheEU.

真题解析:文章概括:政府大臣Grorge Osbome提出了一个项目帮助失业的人找工作。

21.George Osborne’s scheme was intended to

[A]provide the unemployed with easier access to benefits.

[B]encourage jobseekers’ active engagement in job seeking.

[C]motivate the unemployed to report voluntarily.

[D]guarantee jobseekers’ legitimate right to benefits.

答案:B 细节题。本道题的关键是intended to问的是目的,所以我们也应该去寻找体现目的性的词汇,所以在首段首句看到了in order to ,则后面的内容即为本题答案,结合后面找工作的内容则选择B选项。

22.The phrase “to sign on”(Line 3,Para.2) most probably means

[A]to check on the availability of jobs at the jobcentre.

[B]to accept the government’s restrictions on the allowance.

[C]to register for an allowance from the government.

[D]to attend a governmental job-training program.

答案: C 词义句意题。先根据题干定位到第二段第三行,to sign on前面有一个很明显的not,则我们可以推知,这一定是前面的反义,我们只要读懂前面半部分就可以了,前面说应该spend looking for work,正好和A选项相符,所以我们只要选择一个相反的选项即可,则选择C选项。

23.What promoted the chancellor to develop his scheme?

[A]A desire to secure a better life for all.

[B]An eagerness to protect the unemployed.

[C]An urge to be generous to the claimants.

[D]A passion to ensure fairness for taxpayers.

答案:A 细节题。本道题的关键是题目中的prompted和chancellor,根据chancellor能定位到二段第五行,再向下寻找则可发现motivate和prompt是对应的,所以看本句即可发现和A选项是对应的。

24.According to Paragraph 3, being unemployed makes one one feel

[A]uneasy.

[B]enraged.

[C]insulted.

[D]guilty.

答案: A 细节题。本道题根据unemployed回到文中定位在第三段的最后一句,没有感觉相关内容,所以需要向前找答案,再根据本段第一句话中的losing a job即可判定答案在第二句,因此选择A选项。另我们会发现BCD三个选项趋于强烈和负面,所以,我们选择A选项。

25.To which of the following would the author most probably agree?

[A]The British welfare system indulges jobseekers’ laziness.

[B]Osborne’s reforms will reduce the risk of unemployment.

[C]The jobseekers’ allowance has met their actual needs.

[D]Unemployment benefits should not be made conditional.

答案:B 细节题。本题题根据选项定位。A选项根据大写字母The British welfare system定位到最后一段的第三句,原文是“no longer”,选项与原文反向干扰。B选项根据Osborne’s reforms

定位到第一段第二句,可以得出该项目可减少失业危险,所以B为正确答案。C选项根据题干“the jobseekers’ allowance”定位到最后一段倒数第二句,该句提到“no fundamental right”,恰与C选项表意相反,所以C是反向干扰。D选项根据题干“conditional”定位到最后一段最后一句,其中只提到“conditional on actively seeking a job…”,并没有要说以后应该怎样,所以属于无中生有。

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